Software Development

Design Patterns #1 – Strategy Pattern

In the past two years, as I delved deeper into the world of software development and maintenance, I realized that there is a thin line that separates a maintainable code and a messy one. This thin line can save you hundreds of hours in new releases, development and maintenance. This thin line is between those who are familiar with and follow the design patterns and those who don’t. Now honestly speaking, I am ashamed that this is not one of those things that are taught in the undergraduate curriculum for Computer Science. It definitely deserves a mention after students are familiar with the concepts of Object Oriented Programming (OOP). This is because in real world, more time is spent in maintaining and changing software than on initial development. This is why there should be a significant effort towards code reuse and extensibility as well as maintainability.

Design Patterns help developers create functional, elegant, reusable and flexible software[Head First Design Patterns]. Patterns help you in getting to the final product faster by avoiding a lot of common issues that other developers might have faced by providing general solutions to those common problems. Patterns help you in using your basic OOP knowledge and take it one level up to build good systems.

According to, “In software engineering, a design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. A design pattern isn’t a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations.”

Now let us look at our first design patterns – Strategy Pattern.

According to Head First Design Patterns, “The strategy pattern defines a family of algorithms, encapsulates each one, and makes them interchangeable. Strategy lets the algorithm vary independently from clients that use it.”

Now lets translate this definition into simpler terms. What strategy pattern advises is to separate parts of the code that change from those that stay the same. It advises to put different behaviors in different interfaces and then implement each separate behavior through its own class. Let us look at an example now.

Suppose you are developing a game like Counter Strike. Now each character of the game can make use of one weapon at a time, but can change weapons at any time during the game. There are also multiple types of players with different outfits. One way to implement this could be to simply have a Soldier class and all the characters inherit from this. Now if tomorrow, you want to add a dummy soldier who does not have the capabilities to shoot or run,  then you will have to rewrite a lot of classes. Also if every six months you want to add new characters with different capabilities, then inheritance is not a very good way to go.

One way this problem can be solved is by separating the characters and their behaviors. You can have a Character class and all your soldiers can inherit from this. You can have a WeaponBehavior interface that specifies how to use the weapon with a useWeapon() method. Now your Character class can have an instance variable that is declared as the interface WeaponBehavior type. Each different weapon like a gun, a knife, a grenade, a smoke bomb, a rifle, etc. can implement the useWeapon() method of the WeaponBehavior interface in its own unique way. In this way, if tomorrow you want to add a new weapon like say a rocket launcher, you can simply declare a new RocketLauncher class that implements the useWeapon() method of the WeaponBehavior interface to launch a rocket. If you would like to add a new character say a team of elite jokers who terrorize everyone, you can simply add a class for their weapon and a class for their character and you are all done. You don’t have any need to touch any other piece of existing code. Also, now all your existing characters can use these new weapons and your new jokers can also use the previously existing weapons.


So the main aim is to separate the algorithms or varying behaviors from the clients that use it. The image above should make it clearer. You can also refer to this video by Derek Banas for more information.

I hope you understood the need for the knowledge of design patterns and the way the strategy pattern can be utilized. Have a great day developing code and always remember that more time is spent in maintaining and changing software than on initial development. So make it easier for your next incarnation to maintain and extend the code you write in this life.

Stay tuned for more design patterns 🙂